Protons and neutrons make up the center (nucleus) of the atom, and electrons form shells around the nucleus.The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines the element.
Of over 4,000 quotations in the books this Encyclopedia is based on, only 164 statements are by creationists. One is that the carbon 14 concentration in the carbon dioxide cycle is constant.
You will have a better understanding of the following statements by scientists if you will also read the web page, . The other is that the cosmic ray flux has been essentially constant—at least on a scale of centuries."—*J. Kulp, "The Carbon 14 Method of Age Determination," in Scientific Monthly, November 1952, p. "Hair from the Chekurovka mammoth that was found in the Lena River delta region of Russia has a radiocarbon age of 26,000 [years] while the radiocarbon age of peat only eighteen inches above the carcass is 5,610.
Thus, as the radioactive carbon-14 in dead matter decays to the more plentiful isotope carbon-12, the proportion of C-14 to C-12 declines.
Carbon-14 has a half-life of about 5,600 years, so measuring the proportion of C-14 that's still present in dead organic matter, and comparing it to the known proportion of C-14 in living matter, will indicate the age of the sample. Libby assumed the ratio of C-14 to C-12 was constant, but the enormous amount of old carbon (from coal, petroleum and other fossil fuels) unearthed since the Industrial Revolution has changed the ratio.
The University of Chicago professor developed radiocarbon dating in the late 1940s and won the 1960 Nobel Prize in chemistry for it.