Attempts by Scottish, Irish and American churches to organize congregations in the colonies and efforts to found an indigenous Canadian Presbyterian church all failed, but by the early 19th century branches of the Church of Scotland and its smaller "Secessionist" offshoots had been established.
In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, and the Presbyterian denomination was also taken to North America mostly by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants.
The Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there are a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, and the necessity of grace through faith in Christ.
Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707 which created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
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