“It revolutionized our understanding of the way life had evolved [to] survive in extreme environments.” After Brock made his discovery, other scientists studying this bacteria found that it is an important, stable source of the enzyme DNA polymerase, which allows DNA strands to replicate.
“They realized that you could use that thermally stable DNA polymerase to do some very important engineering and chemistry in the lab,” Watkins said, and researchers, who later won Isolated in the middle of Lake Superior, Isle Royale National Park is a rugged, small island, and it was also here that, in 1958, wildlife biologist Durward Allen began doing some some incredibly important research on the predator-prey relationship of wolves and moose.
Gradual rates of mountain building, erosion of mountains, and the motions of tectonic plates imply hundreds of millions of years of change.
Radiometric dating, which relies on the predictable decay of radioactive isotopes of carbon, uranium, potassium, and other elements, provides accurate age estimates for events back to the formation of Earth more than 4.5 billion years ago.
These and other dating techniques are mutually consistent and underscore the reality of “deep time” in Earth history.